Let us overview the variations of deep learning now !


This weekend, I research recurrent neural network (RNN) as I want to develop my small chatbot. I also run program of convnet as I want to confirm how they are accurate.  So I think it is good timing to overview the variations of deep learning because this makes it easier to learn each of network in details.


1. Fully connected network

This is the basic of deep learning. When you heard the word “deep learning”, it means “Fully connected network” in most cases. Let us see the program in my article of last week again. You can see “fully_connected” in it.  This network is similar to the network in our brain.

Deep Learning


2. Convolutional neural network (Convnet)

This is mainly used for image recognition and computer vision. there are many variations in convnet to achieve higher accuracy. Could you remember my recommendation of TED presentations before?  Let us see it again when you want to know convnet more.


3. Recurrent neural network (RNN)

The biggest advantage of RNN is that no need to use fixed size input (Covnet needs it). Therefore it is frequently used in natural language processes as our sentences are sometimes very short and sometimes very long. It means that RNN can handle sequence of input data effectively. In order to solve difficulties when parameters are obtained, many kind of RNN are developed and used now.



4. Reinforcement learning (RL)

the output is an action or sequence of actions and the only supervisory signal is an occasional scalar reward.

  • The goal in selecting each action is to maximize the expected sum of the future rewards. We usually use a discount factor for delayed rewards so that we don’t have to look too far into the future.

This is a good explanation according to the lecture_slides-lec1 p46 of  “Neural Networks for Machine Learning” by Geoffrey Hinton, in Coursera.



Many researchers all over the world have been developing new models. Therefore new kind of network may be added in near future. Until that, these models are considered as building blocks to implement the deep learning algorithms to solve our problems. Let us use them effectively!


Notice: TOSHI STATS SDN. BHD. and I do not accept any responsibility or liability for loss or damage occasioned to any person or property through using materials, instructions, methods, algorithm or ideas contained herein, or acting or refraining from acting as a result of such use. TOSHI STATS SDN. BHD. and I expressly disclaim all implied warranties, including merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. There will be no duty on TOSHI STATS SDN. BHD. and me to correct any errors or defects in the codes and the software


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